Topics
Code Section
Virginia > Title 24.2 Elections > Election Districts, Precincts, And Polling Places

§ 24.2-302.2 Congressional districts

Statute

A. There shall be 11 Virginia members of the United States House of Representatives elected from 11 congressional districts and each district is entitled to one representative.

B. All references in this section to boundaries of counties and cities shall be interpreted to refer to those in existence on April 1, 2011, and as reported by the United States Bureau of the Census in the 2010 Census reports provided pursuant to United States Public Law 94-171, notwithstanding subsequent boundary changes by law, annexation, merger, consolidation, or the voiding of boundary changes theretofore made final.

C. Parts of counties and cities listed in subsection D are defined by reference to the 2010 Census reports for the precincts, parts of precincts, and blocks listed for each congressional district in the Statistical Report for this enrolled House bill on file with the Clerk of the House of Delegates. Precincts shall be interpreted to refer to those in existence on April 1, 2011, and as reported by the United States Bureau of the Census in the 2010 Census reports provided pursuant to United States Public Law 94-171, notwithstanding subsequent changes made by localities.

D. The 11 congressional districts are:

First. All of Caroline, Essex, Gloucester, King and Queen, King George, King William, Lancaster, Mathews, Middlesex, Northumberland, Richmond, Stafford, Westmoreland, and York Counties; all of the Cities of Fredericksburg, Poquoson, and Williamsburg; part of Fauquier County comprised of the Bealeton (303), Catlett (102), Lois (104), and Morrisville (301) Precincts and part of the Remington (302) Precinct; part of James City County comprised of the Berkeley A Part 1 (101), Berkeley A Part 2 (1012), Berkeley B Part 1 (1021), Berkeley B Part 2 (1022), Berkeley C (103), Jamestown A (201), Jamestown B (202), Powhatan A (301), Powhatan B (302), Powhatan C (303), Powhatan D (304), Roberts A Part 1 (5011), Roberts A Part 2 (5012), Roberts C Part 1 (5031), Roberts C Part 2 (5032), Stonehouse A (401), Stonehouse B (402), and Stonehouse C (403) Precincts and part of the Roberts B (502) Precinct; part of Prince William County comprised of the Ashland (309), Bennett (102), Benton (203), Brentsville (101), Bristow Run (111), Cedar Point (112), Ellis (106), Forest Park (310), Glenkirk (408), Henderson (307), Lake Ridge (501), Limestone (113), Lodge (207), Marshall (202), Marsteller (107), McCoart (204), Montclair (308), Mullen (411), Nokesville (104), Park (109), Pattie (305), Penn (210), Powell (211), Quantico (304), Sinclair (404), Stonewall (405), Sudley North (409), Victory (108), Washington-Reid (306), Westgate (407), Westridge (208), and Woodbine (209) Precincts and part of the Buckland Mills (110) Precinct; part of Spotsylvania County comprised of the Battlefield (701), Brent’s Mill (702), Grange Hall (303), Hazel Run (302), Plank Road (301), and Summit (401) Precincts and part of the Lee Hill (403) Precinct; and part of the City of Newport News comprised of the Greenwood (110) Precinct.

Second. All of Accomack and Northampton Counties; all of the City of Virginia Beach; part of the City of Hampton comprised of the Asbury (205), Booker (201), Bryan (202), Burbank (203), Langley (209), Phillips (213), Sandy Bottom (216), and Syms (113) Precincts and part of the Machen (210) Precinct; part of the City of Newport News comprised of the Boulevard (202), Charles (203), Deer Park (219), Hidenwood (208), Kiln Creek (218), Nelson (210), Oyster Point (105), Palmer (211), Richneck (107), Riverview (217), Sanford (213), Saunders (319), Sedgefield (315), Watkins (320), Wellesley (204), Windsor (109), and Yates (216) Precincts and parts of the Deep Creek (205), Hilton (209), Riverside (212), and Warwick (215) Precincts; and part of the City of Norfolk comprised of the Azalea Gardens (512), Barron Black (406), Bayview School (501), Crossroads (511), East Ocean View (503), Easton (408), Fairlawn (409), Lafayette (205), Larchmont Library (208), Larchmont Recreation Center (209), Larrymore (504), Little Creek (505), Northside (103), Ocean View Center (506), Ocean View School (102), Oceanair (508), Old Dominion (201), Suburban Park (215), Tarrallton (509), Third Presbyterian (510), Willard (218), and Zion Grace (106) Precincts.

Third. All of Charles City and Surry Counties; all of the Cities of Petersburg and Portsmouth; part of Henrico County comprised of the Adams (201), Antioch (501), Azalea (202), Cedar Fork (502), Central Gardens (206), Chickahominy (503), Donahoe (504), Dorey (505), Eanes (506), Elko (507), Fairfield (208), Glen Lea (209), Highland Gardens (211), Highland Springs (508), Laburnum (509), Maplewood (215), Masonic (510), Mehfoud (511), Montrose (512), Nine Mile (513), Pleasants (514), Ratcliffe (220), Rolfe (519), Sandston (515), Sullivans (516), Town Hall (517), Whitlocks (518), and Wilder (222) Precincts; part of Isle of Wight County comprised of parts of the Bartlett (201), Carrollton (202), and Rushmere (301) Precincts; part of James City County comprised of part of the Roberts B (502) Precinct; part of Prince George County comprised of the Blackwater (202), Bland (201), Brandon (203), and Harrison (105) Precincts and part of the Rives (104) Precinct; part of the City of Hampton comprised of the Aberdeen (101), Armstrong (106), Bassette (102), Bethel (212), City Hall (103), Cooper (104), East Hampton (105), Forrest (204), Hampton Library (111), Jones (116), Kecoughtan (117), Kraft (208), Lindsay (107), Mallory (118), Phenix (109), Phoebus (110), Smith (112), Thomas (108), Tucker Capps (214), Tyler (215), and Wythe (115) Precincts and part of the Machen (210) Precinct; part of the City of Newport News comprised of the Bland (201), Briarfield (302), Carver (303), Chestnut (304), Denbigh (101), Downtown (305), Dunbar (306), Epes (102), Huntington (307), Jefferson (308), Jenkins (103), Lee Hall (108), Magruder (309), Marshall (310), McIntosh (104), Newmarket (311), Newsome Park (312), Reed (313), Reservoir (106), River (314), South Morrison (316), Washington (317), and Wilson (318) Precincts and parts of the Deep Creek (205), Hilton (209), Riverside (212), and Warwick (215) Precincts; part of the City of Norfolk comprised of the Ballentine (301), Berkley (402), Bowling Park (303), Brambleton (403), Campostella (404), Chesterfield (405), Chrysler Museum (211), Coleman Place School (304), Ghent Square (203), Granby (101), Hunton Y (411), Immanuel (204), Ingleside (412), Lafayette-Winona (305), Lambert’s Point (207), Lindenwood (306), Maury (210), Norview Methodist (308), Norview Middle School (309), Park Place (212), Poplar Halls (413), Rosemont (310), Sherwood Rec Center (311), Sherwood School (312), Stuart (214), Tanner’s Creek (302), Taylor Elementary School (213), Titustown Center (104), Tucker House (105), Union Chapel (313), United Way (415), Wesley (217), and Young Park (414) Precincts; part of the City of Richmond comprised of the 113 (113), 114 (114), 203 (203), 204 (204), 206 (206), 207 (207), 208 (208), 211 (211), 212 (212), 213 (213), 301 (301), 302 (302), 303 (303), 304 (304), 305 (305), 306 (306), 307 (307), 308 (308), 402 (402), 501 (501), 503 (503), 504 (504), 505 (505), 508 (508), 509 (509), 510 (510), 602 (602), 603 (603), 604 (604), 606 (606), 607 (607), 609 (609), 610 (610), 701 (701), 702 (702), 703 (703), 705 (705), 706 (706), 707 (707), 802 (802), 806 (806), 810 (810), 811 (811), 812 (812), 814 (814), 902 (902), 903 (903), 908 (908), 909 (909), 910 (910), and 911 (911) Precincts and part of the 404 (404) Precinct; and part of the City of Suffolk comprised of parts of the Bennetts Creek (104), Ebenezer (201), and Harbour View (103) Precincts.

Fourth. All of Amelia, Dinwiddie, Greensville, Nottoway, Powhatan, Southampton, and Sussex Counties; all of the Cities of Chesapeake, Colonial Heights, Emporia, Franklin, and Hopewell; part of Chesterfield County comprised of the Bailey Bridge (315), Beach (305), Bellwood (101), Beulah (202), Bird (203), Birkdale (317), Carver (112), Chippenham (207), Cosby (307), Crenshaw (414), Deer Run (302), Drewry’s Bluff (105), Dutch Gap (110), Ecoff (108), Elizabeth Scott (109), Enon (103), Ettrick (301), Falling Creek (205), Five Forks (210), Gates (201), Harrowgate (106), Iron Bridge (111), Jacobs (204), Matoaca (303), Meadowbrook (208), Nash (211), North Chester (104), S. Manchester (308), Salem Church (209), South Chester (102), Southside (213), Spring Run (316), St. Lukes (212), Wells (107), Winfrees Store (304), and Winterpock (306) Precincts; part of Isle of Wight County comprised of the Camps Mill (502), Carrsville (503), Courthouse (401), Orbit (403), Pons (302), Raynor (505), Smithfield (101), Walters (501), Windsor (402), and Zuni (504) Precincts and parts of the Bartlett (201), Carrollton (202), and Rushmere (301) Precincts; part of Prince George County comprised of the Courts Bldg (204), Jefferson Park (205), Richard Bland (101), Templeton (102), and Union Branch (103) Precincts and part of the Rives (104) Precinct; and part of the City of Suffolk comprised of the Airport (401), Chuckatuck (202), Cypress Chapel (303), Driver (102), Elephants Fork/Westhaven (603), Holland (502), Hollywood (701), Holy Neck (503), John F. Kennedy (302), Kilby’s Mill (501), King’s Fork (203), Lake Cohoon (504), Lakeside (601), Nansemond River (703), Olde Towne (602), Southside (403), Whaleyville (402), White Marsh (301), and Yeates (705) Precincts and parts of the Bennetts Creek (104), Ebenezer (201), and Harbour View (103) Precincts.

Fifth. All of Albemarle, Appomattox, Brunswick, Buckingham, Campbell, Charlotte, Cumberland, Fluvanna, Franklin, Greene, Halifax, Lunenburg, Madison, Mecklenburg, Nelson, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, and Rappahannock Counties; all of the Cities of Bedford, Charlottesville, and Danville; part of Bedford County comprised of the Bedford Christian Church (703), Bedford County PSA (302), Bethesda Methodist Church (303), Body Camp Elem School (204), Chamblissburg First Aid Bldg (103), Goode Rescue Squad (701), Goodview Elem School (101), Hardy Fire & Rescue Bldg (102), Huddleston Elem School (305), Liberty High School (702), Moneta Elem School (203), Saunders Grove Brethren Church (604), Saunders Vol Fire Dept (205), Shady Grove Baptist Church (602), Staunton River High School (202), and Thaxton Elem School (603) Precincts and part of the New London Academy (301) Precinct; part of Fauquier County comprised of the Airlie (202), Baldwin Ridge (203), Broad Run (503), Casanova (103), Courthouse (201), Kettle Run (101), Leeds (402), Marshall (401), New Baltimore (502), Opal (105), The Plains (501), Warrenton (204), and Waterloo (403) Precincts and part of the Remington (302) Precinct; and part of Henry County comprised of the Axton (302), Irisburg (303), Mountain Valley (305), Mountain View (405), and Ridgeway #1 (603) Precincts and part of the Mount Olivet (304) Precinct.

Sixth. All of Amherst, Augusta, Bath, Botetourt, Highland, Page, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties; all of the Cities of Buena Vista, Harrisonburg, Lexington, Lynchburg, Roanoke, Staunton, and Waynesboro; part of Bedford County comprised of the Big Island Elem School (502), Boonsboro Elem School (505), Boonsboro Ruritan Club (506), Forest Elem School (401), Forest Youth Athletic Assoc. (304), Knights Of Columbus Bldg (403), Montvale Elem School (601), Odd Fellows Hall (504), Pleasant View (507), Sedalia Center (503), Suck Springs (704), and Thomas Jefferson Elem School (402) Precincts and part of the New London Academy (301) Precinct; and part of Roanoke County comprised of the Bonsack (402), Burlington (202), Castle Rock (305), Cave Spring (503), Clearbrook (505), Cotton Hill (501), Garst Mill (306), Hollins (206), Hunting Hills (507), Lindenwood (405), Mount Pleasant (406), Mount Vernon (506), Mountain View (203), North Vinton (403), Oak Grove (304), Ogden (504), Orchards (205), Penn Forest (502), Plantation (201), Poages Mill (302), South Vinton (404), and Windsor Hills (303) Precincts.

Seventh. All of Culpeper, Goochland, Hanover, Louisa, New Kent, and Orange Counties; part of Chesterfield County comprised of the Beaufont (513), Belgrade (508), Belmont (206), Black Heath (511), Bon Air (505), Brandermill (403), Cranbeck (509), Crestwood (502), Davis (515), Evergreen (312), Genito (402), Greenfield (506), Harbour Pointe (401), Huguenot (501), La Prade (405), Manchester (409), Midlothian (503), Monacan (407), Providence (404), Reams (408), Robious (504), Salisbury (507), Shenandoah (413), Skinquarter (309), Smoketree (406), Swift Creek (411), Sycamore (510), Tomahawk (310), Wagstaff (410), Watkins (514), and Woolridge (313) Precincts; part of Henrico County comprised of the Belmont (203), Brookland (204), Byrd (401), Canterbury (205), Causeway (301), Cedarfield (302), Chamberlayne (207), Coalpit (101), Crestview (303), Derbyshire (402), Dumbarton (102), Freeman (403), Gayton (404), Glen Allen (103), Glenside (104), Godwin (405), Greendale (105), Greenwood (210), Hermitage (106), Hilliard (107), Hollybrook (212), Hungary (213), Hungary Creek (116), Hunton (108), Innsbrook (304), Jackson Davis (305), Johnson (109), Lakeside (110), Lakewood (406), Lauderdale (407), Longan (111), Longdale (214), Maude Trevvett (112), Maybeury (408), Monument Hills (306), Moody (216), Mooreland (409), Mountain (217), Nuckols Farm (307), Oakview (218), Pemberton (410), Pinchbeck (411), Pocahontas (308), Randolph (219), Ridge (309), Ridgefield (412), Rivers Edge (317), Rollingwood (413), Sadler (310), Shady Grove (311), Short Pump (318), Skipwith (312), Spottswood (414), Springfield (313), Staples Mill (113), Stoney Run (314), Stratford Hall (221), Summit Court (114), Three Chopt (315), Tuckahoe (415), Tucker (316), Wellborne (417), West End (416), Westwood (115), and Yellow Tavern (223) Precincts; part of Spotsylvania County comprised of the Belmont (501), Blaydes Corner (102), Brock (505), Brokenburg (502), Chancellor (204), Courthouse (504), Elys Ford (201), Fairview (703), Frazers Gate (402), Massaponax (104), Ni River (203), Partlow (101), Piedmont (603), Salem (601), Smith Station (602), Todd’s Tavern (503), Travelers Rest (103), and Wilderness (202) Precincts and part of the Lee Hill (403) Precinct; and part of the City of Richmond comprised of the 101 (101), 102 (102), 104 (104), 105 (105), 106 (106), 111 (111), 112 (112), 309 (309), 409 (409), 410 (410), 412 (412), and 413 (413) Precincts and part of the 404 (404) Precinct.

Eighth. All of Arlington County; all of the Cities of Alexandria and Falls Church; and part of Fairfax County comprised of the Alban (623), Baileys (501), Belle Haven (601), Belleview (602), Belvoir (619), Bren Mar (526), Brook Hill (521), Bucknell (604), Bush Hill (401), Cameron (402), Chesterbrook (302), Clermont (423), Crestwood (415), Edsall (527), El Nido (305), Fairfield (413), Fort Buffalo (703), Fort Hunt (605), Franconia (404), Garfield (417), Glen Forest #2 (529), Glen Forest (505), Graham (705), Greenway (706), Grosvenor (621), Groveton (405), Gunston (616), Haycock (307), Hayfield (406), Hollin Hall (606), Holmes #1 (506), Huntington (607), Huntley (424), Island Creek (427), Kingstowne (421), Kirby (310), Kirkside (608), Lane (419), Leewood (531), Lincolnia (507), Longfellow (312), Lorton (617), Lorton Center (625), Lorton Station (622), Lynbrook (418), Marlan (609), Marshall (708), Mount Eagle (408), Parklawn (510), Pimmit (315), Pine Spring (710), Pioneer (409), Poe (523), Rose Hill (410), Salona (316), Saratoga (626), Sherwood (610), Shreve (712), Skyline (520), Stratford (611), Timber Lane (713), Van Dorn (422), Villages (420), Virginia Hills (411), Walnut Hill # 1 (525), Walnut Hill # 2 (728), Waynewood (612), Westgate (613), Westhampton (317), Westlawn (515), Westmoreland (318), Weyanoke (516), Whitman (614), Whittier (524), Willston (517), Wilton (425), Woodlawn (627), and Woodley (615) Precincts and parts of the Magarity (726) and Saint Albans (513) Precincts.

Ninth. All of Alleghany, Bland, Buchanan, Carroll, Craig, Dickenson, Floyd, Giles, Grayson, Lee, Montgomery, Patrick, Pulaski, Russell, Scott, Smyth, Tazewell, Washington, Wise, and Wythe Counties; all of the Cities of Bristol, Covington, Galax, Martinsville, Norton, Radford, and Salem; part of Henry County comprised of the Bassett No. 1 (501), Bassett No. 2 (101), Collinsville Number 1 (401), Collinsville Number 2 (404), Daniel’s Creek (402), Dyers Store (505), Fieldale (201), Figsboro (502), Fontaine (601), Gunville (102), Hillcrest (602), Horsepasture #1 (202), Horsepasture #2 (203), Oak Level (504), Ridgeway #2 (604), Scott’s Tanyard (103), Spencer (204), and Stanleytown (503) Precincts and part of the Mount Olivet (304) Precinct; and part of Roanoke County comprised of the Bennett Springs (107), Bent Mountain (301), Botetourt Springs (204), Catawba (101), Glenvar (103), Green Hill (106), Mason Valley (102), Northside (104), Peters Creek (105), and Wildwood (108) Precincts.

Tenth. All of Clarke, Frederick, and Loudoun Counties; all of the Cities of Manassas, Manassas Park, and Winchester; part of Fairfax County comprised of the Brookfield (902), Bull Run (923), Chain Bridge (301), Churchill (303), Clearview (321), Clifton (803), Colvin (330), Cooper (304), Cub Run (903), Deer Park (921), Dulles (904), Fairfax Station (805), Forestville (322), Fountainhead (845), Fox Mill (229), Franklin (905), Great Falls (306), Greenbriar West (847), Hickory (328), Kenmore (309), Kinross (908), Langley (311), Lees Corner (920), Lees Corner West (927), McLean (314), Navy (911), Newgate North (849), Newgate South (854), Popes Head (841), Poplar Tree (928), Rocky Run (913), Sangster (838), Seneca (329), Shouse (323), Silverbrook (839), South Run (850), Spring Hill (331), Stone (917), Sugarland (327), Vale (914), Virginia Run (915), Waples Mill (916), and Woodyard (815) Precincts and part of the Old Mill (925) Precinct; and part of Prince William County comprised of the Alvey (406), Battlefield (402), Buckhall (103), Bull Run (403), Evergreen (401), Mountain View (410), Pace West (412), Parkside (105), Pr. William A (000), and Signal Hill (114) Precincts and part of the Buckland Mills (110) Precinct.

Eleventh. All of the City of Fairfax; part of Fairfax County comprised of the Aldrin (234), Barcroft (502), Belvedere (503), Blake (701), Bonnie Brae (126), Bristow (102), Burke (801), Burke Centre (127), Camelot (522), Cameron Glen (238), Cardinal (128), Centerpointe (844), Centre Ridge (901), Centreville (918), Chapel (104), Cherry Run (825), Columbia (518), Coppermine (239), Dogwood (220), Eagle View (853), Fair Oaks (848), Fairfax A (0700), Fairlakes (843), Fairview (105), Flint Hill (202), Floris (203), Freedom Hill (704), Frying Pan (235), Glade (223), Green Trails (919), Greenbriar East (846), Greenspring (426), Heritage (106), Herndon #1 (319), Herndon #2 (320), Herndon #3 (324), Holmes #2 (530), Hummer (519), Hunt (624), Hunters Woods (221), Hutchison (325), Irving (827), Keene Mill (129), Kilmer (733), Kings Park (108), Lake Braddock (118), Laurel (119), Laurel Hill (628), London Towne East (910), London Towne West (924), Long Branch (122), Mantua (707), Masonville (508), McNair (237), Merrifield (721), Monument (852), Mosby (709), Newington (618), North Point (233), North Springfield # 1 (110), North Springfield # 2 (111), Nottoway (729), Oak Hill (113), Oak Marr (732), Oakton (727), Olde Creek (109), Olley (124), Orange (824), Parkway (842), Penderbrook (730), Pine Ridge (718), Pohick (811), Powell (926), Price (711), Ravensworth (115), Ravenwood (511), Reston #1 (208), Reston #2 (209), Reston #3 (222), Ridgelea (528), Robinson (123), Sideburn (120), Signal Hill (125), Sleepy Hollow (512), South County (629), South Lakes (224), Stenwood (719), Stuart (236), Sunrise Valley (227), Terra Centre (130), Terraset (225), Thoreau (720), Tysons (731), Valley (812), Vienna #1 (213), Vienna #2 (214), Vienna #4 (216), Vienna #6 (218), Villa (121), Wakefield (116), Walker (714), West Springfield (840), Westbriar (219), White Oaks (833), Willow Springs (851), Wolftrap (226), Woodburn (717), and Woodson (117) Precincts and parts of the Magarity (726), Old Mill (925), and Saint Albans (513) Precincts; and part of Prince William County comprised of the Bel Air (606), Belmont (701), Bethel (506), Beville (205), Chinn (507), Civic Center (604), Dale (601), Dumfries (301), Enterprise (608), Featherstone (704), Freedom (609), Godwin (603), Graham Park (303), Kerrydale (607), Kilby (707), King (206), Library (702), Lynn (703), Minnieville (605), Mohican (505), Neabsco (602), Occoquan (502), Old Bridge (503), Potomac (302), Potomac View (705), Rippon (706), River Oaks (708), Rockledge (504), Saunders (201), Springwoods (508), and Swans Creek (311) Precincts.

2012, c. 1.

Annotation: 03/18/2016 12:46 pm

Though the Virginia Constitution appears to require redistricting in the year after the decennial Census was completed, which would have been in 2011. The most recent congressional redistricting in Virginia occurred in 2012.

Annotation: 12:43 pm

Federal law requires single-member congressional districts. See _U.S.C sec. __.

Definition [United States]

Used in the territorial sense, means the several states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

See § 24.2-452.

Definition [DRE]

The electronic voting machine on which a voter touches areas of a computer screen, or uses other control features, to mark a ballot and his vote is recorded electronically.

See § 24.2-101.

Definition [State]

A state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

See § 24.2-452.

Definition [Precinct]

The territory designated by the governing body of a county, city, or town to be served by one polling place.

See § 24.2-101.

Cases

Virginia Cases

Out-of-State Cases

Case State: virginia

Case Name: Wilkins v. Davis

Citation: 139 S.E.2d 849

Year: 1965

Case URL: https://www.ravellaw.com/opinions/c77d47aec727ff399b63167cf93fbbdc

Case Summary: Holding that apportionment containing congressional districts with populations ranging from 313,000 to 527,000 violated the state constitution, because districts did not contain an equal number of inhabitants.

Federal Cases

Case Name: Moon v. Meadows

Citation: 952 F. Supp. 1141

Federal District Court: Eastern District of Virginia

Year: 1997

Case URL: https://www.ravellaw.com/opinions/d83788234f6379b88472be6cb3684abc

Case Summary: Striking down a congressional district as racially gerrymandered over the government’s argument that it had a compelling interest in drawing it: avoiding violation of the Voting Rights Act. The Court did not find a credible threat of a lawsuit from the federal government.

Case Name: Hall v. Virginia

Citation: 276 F. Supp. 2d 528

Federal District Court: Eastern District of Virginia

Year: 2003

Case URL: https://www.ravellaw.com/opinions/dedb27cb09b954016ee3904a1ac5aed8

Case Summary: Holding that (1) voters residing in a district as previously configured lacked standing to sue and that (2) black voters’ failure to produce an alternative district drawing that would create a black majority district without taking away the black majority in a neighboring district precluded their dilution claim.

State Constitutional Provisions

Additional Resources

Useful Links